FASTGRID Work Packages

FASTGRID Work Packages

To bring FASTGRID to a successful conclusion, the project will run for 42 months and within six work packages (WP). It will be jointly coordinated by CNRS-G2Elab and KIT.

The project overall structure is conceived to provide answers to the foreseen challenges, with four scientific work packages (WP1-4) and additional work packages for the dissemination and exploitation (WP5) and the project management (WP6).

FASTGRID consists of 4 main WPs in addition to the project management and dissemination WPs

WP1: Advanced and emerging REBCO Tapes.

WP2: Long length REBCO tapes for demonstration.

WP3: Functionalized material for devices and FCL smart module.

WP4: Validation and demonstration tests.

WP5: Dissemination and socio-economic aspects.

WP6: Project management

Work Packages at FastGrid

WP1: Advanced and emerging REBCO Tapes

Leader CSIC: Creating innovative REBCO HTS conductors with enhanced performances for current limitation is the main objective of WP1. Several novel ideas will be investigated to modify the architectures of REBCO conductors with a strong potential to enhance the performances of REBCO conductors for current limitation purposes.

The global objective of WP1 is to define optimized conductors allowing to increase the electric field during limitation and so decreasing the total conductor length required to sustain a given voltage. In order to achieve an effective currentlimiting effect the resistance of parallel metallic thin layers stabilizing the REBCO conductor must be high enough. However, the main difficulty is to avoid the formation of hot pots, which might locally destroy the REBCO conductor.

The requirement to keep critical current fluctuations as low as possible (typically less than 5-10 %) while the total critical current Ic is high is tackled in WP2. The objective is to develop REBCO conductors with Ic about 500 A/cm-w at 77 K and thus Ic about 1000 A/cm-w at 65 K. Here the main pillar of the innovative approaches of WP1 is to develop conductor architectures combining protection/stabilizing layers in order to minimize the hot spot nuisance issues. Three approaches will be investigated which should allow to decrease the electrical conductivity of the stabilizing metallic layers and in this way achieve enhanced electric fields in resistive state: 1/ Insulating or high contact resistance nanometric coatings prepared by ink-jet printing (IJP) which behave as Current Flow Diverters (CFD) thus enhancing the Normal Zone Propagation Velocity (NZPV) by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude and lead to a much more homogeneous distribution of the generated heat; 2/ The use of high thermal capacity overlayers with high electrical resistivity which should help to reduce the rise of tape temperature and in the same time to improve the transfer of heat generated in the REBCO layer to the external environment. Composite layers from metallic or insulating materials will be optimized for this purpose. Another functionality of these overlayers will be in keeping the conductor in the effective cooling regime instead of the film-boiling regime; 3/ Developing long CSD-IJP REBCO conductors grown on high thermal conductivity sapphire substrates which minimize the hot spot influence and so allow much higher electric fields (x 20-30 as compared to state of the art CCs, i.e. about 1 kV/m) in short lengths.

The scalability of the fabrication processes of the first two advanced conductor architectures will be assessed, the tape manufacturing process will be transferred to WP2 while the functionalized shunt and the tape/shunt assembly procedures will be transferred to WP3.

Numerical modeling will provide strong support throughout the project in order to ensure proceeding the efforts in materials processing in the right direction. Characterization of the advanced and emerging REBCO conductors will be done using fast and ultrafast pulsed quench measurements in order to understand their intrinsic properties. Real time heat exchange to the bath will be measured for each type of insulation leading to an optimized stability.

The validity of the emerging REBCO conductors will be investigated at the stage of proof-of-concept, Laboratory validation and scalability demonstration within WP1, i.e. RTLs from 3 to 6 will be covered. The goal is that the advanced conductors move from TRL 5 to TRL 6 and can be used for the next generation of high performance and reduced cost FCLs in the future. Strong interaction with WP2 and WP3 is anticipated.

T1.1: Preparation of advanced / emerging REBCO coated conductors with tailored coatings for current limitation: Current Flow Diverted conductors (M1-M42)

Task leader: OXO; participants: CSIC, EPM, KIT, THEVA, IEE, STUEPFL

This subtask will explore various ways to process tapes with CFD architecture to reduce the hot spots effects through increase of the NZPV. The processes developed must be applicable to the production of long-length tapes. The various architectures to be developed will be characterized for their effectiveness in speeding up the quench propagation and increasing the electric field during fault current limitation. CSD nanocoatings will be explored to tune up and maximize the performances while Ink Jet Printing will be investigated to scale up the process within WP2. Electric fields in the range of 150 V/m are expected to be achieved.

 

The specific tasks are the following:

  • Specify electrical and thermal properties of enhanced coatings and control protocol
  • Increase the REBCO film thickness keeping a high homogeneity in the CSD CCs to achieve the defined Ic requirements for a FCL (CSIC, OXO)
  • Design and optimize (by numerical simulations) various CFD tape architectures that can be realized with various manufacturing processes (EPM, OXO, THEVA)
  • Use of IJP to coat REBCO CCs (from THEVA and OXO) with high resistance layers of designed width and thickness following the novel concept of CFD (EPM design) (OXO, CSIC)
  • Coat REBCO/CFD layers with Ag to complete a novel CC architecture. Use of Ag or Ag alloys by vacuum deposition and electroplated Cu to test CFD CCs (THEVA)
  • Testing of conductor homogeneity, current limitation, interfacial resistance and quench NZPV propagation to determine the optimal performance of CFD CCs (CSIC, EPFL, EPM, KIT)

 

T1.2: Preparation of advanced REBCO coated conductors with improved stabilization: High thermal capacity or

electrical resistivity layers (M1-M42)

Task leader: IEE; participants: STU, KIT, THEVA, EPFL, EPMCNRS

This subtask will devote an effort to develop conductor architectures to minimize the destructive effects of thermal loads associated to hot spots. Suitable shunt architectures including materials with high thermal capacity (high-Cp) and with the electrical resistivity sufficiently high to sustain electrical fields of 150 V/m in normal state (high resistivity compared to usual CC tapes) will be designed to improve heat transfers. Scaling up of this advanced REBCO tapes will be realized within WP2 while WP3 will scale up the functionalized shunt with its assembly into coils for FCL.

 

The specific tasks are the following:

  • Specify electrical and thermal properties of enhanced coatings and control protocol
  • Design, prepare and optimize (by numerical simulations) various high resistivity or Cp stabilizer architectures to select optimized coatings or laminated layers (EPM, IEE, CNRS)
  • Coat REBCO CCs with nanoscale structured suitable shunt materials with high Cp. This enhanced thermal mass will reduce the temperature rise and prevents overheating (STU, KIT, IEE, THEVA)
  • Maximize the electrical resistance of the Ag metallization layer by decreasing the thickness, using Ag alloys or multilayer structures, using vacuum deposition (THEVA)
  • Plating of stabilizing metallic layers on the novel REBCO CC architectures with high Cp coatings (THEVA)
  • Measure and improve heat transfer to liquid nitrogen in CCs with tailored architectures, mainly avoiding entering into the film boiling regime (IEE, KIT, EPFL)
  • Testing of conductor homogeneity, current limitation, heat transfer properties and quench propagation of thermally stabilized CCs (IEE, KIT, EPFL)
  • Simulation of electro-thermal properties during quench of thermal stabilized tapes (IEE)

 

T1.3: Preparation of emerging conductors based on sapphire flexible substrates (M1-M42)

Task leader: TAU; participants: TAU, OXO, EPFL, IEE, THEVA, EPMCSIC

This task will investigate the use of flexible sapphire substrates as substrates for conductors with very high electric fields during limitation and large NZPV. The well-known high performances achieved with rigid sapphire substrates will be extended to the use of REBCO and buffer layer coatings obtained by CSD and IJP on flexible sapphire substrates now being available at reduced cost. Electric fields beyond 1 kV/m are expected to be achieved.

The following tasks are considered:

  • Specify electrical and thermal properties of enhanced coatings and control protocol
  • Preparation of YSZ/Sapphire templates by sputtering single- or double-sided in lengths of meters (TAU)
  • Preparation of REBCO/CeO2/YSZ/Sapphire conductors by CSD-IJP on single and double-sided template substrates in lengths of meters (CSIC, OXO, TAU)
  • Increase the REBCO film thickness in the CSD Sapphire conductors, keeping a high homogeneity, to achieve the Ic requirements and the homogeneity demanded for a FCL (CSIC, OXO, TAU)
  • Coat REBCO/CeO2/YSZ/Sapphire conductors with Ag or Ag alloys with the optimal thickness. Use of Ag or Ag alloys by vacuum deposition and electroplated Cu to test the current limiting performance of the sapphire conductors and determine the optimal parameters (THEVA, TAU, CSIC)
  • Design and optimize (by numerical simulations) the stabilizer architectures of sapphire tapes (EPM) Testing of conductor homogeneity, current limitation and quench propagation in sapphire tapes (CSIC, TAU, EPFL, IEE, KIT)

D1.1 : Emerging thermal stabilization approaches for REBCO tapes - Preliminary version [13]
Preliminary version

D1.2 : Preparation and performance tests of emerging conductors based on sapphire substrates - Preliminary version
[13]
Preliminary version

D1.3 : Current flow diverted REBCO conductors and their performance for current limitation - Preliminary version
[13]
Preliminary version

D1.4 : Emerging thermal stabilization approaches for REBCO tapes [37]
With the support of modelling choice and experimental qualifications of different materials for thermal stabilization
including their implementation (bonding inter alia) and scale-up aspects.

D1.5 : Preparation and performance tests of emerging conductors based on sapphire substrates [42]
Study and optimization of the whole architecture and process of the Sapphire substrate route from the sapphire
substrate to the REBCO layer through the buffer layers and shunt layer(s). Comparison of different solutions with
regards to limitation performances, scale-up and cost.

D1.6 : Current flow diverted REBCO conductors and their performance for current limitation [42]
Guided by modelling implementation of solutions to elaborate CFD conductors. Experimental qualifications and
improvement of these solutions with always in mind the scale-up.

WP2: Long length REBCO tapes for demonstration

Today, it is already demonstrated that REBCO tapes can be produced in the necessary length for FCL applications. Due to the present properties of these tapes the critical current and electrical field under limitation is low and therefore the amount needed for FCL devices is too large for an economical solution in the HVDC regime. Even for medium voltage devices the REBCO tape cost limits the addressable market.

In order to realize cost-effective advanced REBCO tapes firstly the characteristics of the tapes have to be improved. Therefore, one objective of this work package is to improve the homogeneity of the critical current along the length while aiming at high absolute critical current value. A high homogeneity is necessary to achieve homogeneous switching along the length of the tapes and high electric field under limitation. The aim is to reach values for critical current variation below 10% on relevant length. A high absolute value of critical current will help to reduce the cost as the absolute length of the tapes is reduced for a given design and the device size will decrease. The target is a performance of 1000 A/cm at 65 K and self-field.

Secondly, the metallization layer has to be suitable for applying the high thermal stabilization layer which is developed in WP1 and applied for long length in WP3. Usually, Ag coating is used as metallization layer enabling good electrical contact and ensuring sufficient protection against diffusion or chemical resistance during a lamination process. For high electrical field under limitation, the thickness of the Ag coating has to be decreased to the minimum and/or the resistivity has to be increased by using e.g. Ag alloys. The process and architecture developed on short length has to be implemented for the long length production. In case that the effort about inkjet printed CFD in WP1 successfully leads to enhanced NZPVs and the decision is taken for using this approach for the smart module the continuous reel-to-reel processing of inkjet-printed patterns will be implemented, too. Finally, REBCO tape has to be manufactured for WP1 and WP3 and for the realization of the smart module prototype (WP4).

THEVA, SuperGrid, OXOLUTIA, RSE SPA, EPM, KIT, IEE

T2.1: Increased tape performance and homogeneity (M1-M24)

Task leader: THEVA; participants: KIT, IEERSE

 

To improve the tape homogeneity and tape performance on long length the following is planned:

  • Characterizing the homogeneity of the tapes by resistive measurements (RSE, IEE) and Hall scanning measurements (THEVA, IEE)
  • Analyzing the regions with Ic variation by Hall scanning, SEM, TEM, XRD, chemical analysis etc. and clarifying the origin of the variations, e.g. scratches, stoichiometry variation (THEVA, KIT)
  • Numerical calculations of current flow in the superconductor/normal metal composite with defects (IEE)
  • Optimizing of process parameters and use of optimized material for deposition
  • Studying of the influence of different kinds of inhomogeneity on current limiting performance (together with WP1 on small length and WP3 on large length)
  • Increasing the REBCO film thickness for high critical current and optimizing the parameters for highest performance (current density) at 77K to 65K and relevant magnetic fields.
  • Characterizing the electrical (Ic(B,T)) and mechanical (e.g. bending, Ic –strain dependence) properties in dependence of the thickness and performances (IEE, KIT)

 

T2.2.: Advanced metallization layer suitable for applying an advanced shunt design on long length (M12-M30)

Task leader: IEE; participants: OXO, KIT, EPM, IEESGI

To demonstrate the manufacture of tapes with the metallization suitable for high thermal stability an existing deposition system has to be modified according to the architecture developed in WP1. This might be complemented by a pilot plant Associated with document Ref. Ares(2016)6441697 - 16/11/2016 Page 15 of 36 for continuous reel-to-reel processing of solution-derived thin films at OXO for CFD patterning.

 

Necessary measures include:

  • Definition of necessary process changes to realize the metallization layer architecture, as developed in WP1 (THEVA together with partners in WP1)
  • Assessment of the process for scalability, reproducibility and quality control on long lengths, as well as evaluation of the impact of these parameters on the feasibility of various CFD tape architectures (THEVA, EPM, OXO)
  • Modification and improvements of existing deposition systems for unpatterned metallization layer deposition at
  • THEVA. For inkjet-printed CFD with enhanced NZPVs an existing pilot plant for continuous reel-to-reel processing of inkjet-printed patterns at OXO has to be adapted additionally (THEVA, OXO).
  • Definition of a quality validation protocol (THEVA, OXO, SGI)
  • Adapt additional or improved sensors for quality control according to needs and quality validation protocol, e.g. resistivity along the length (THEVA, OXO).
  • Testing of the properties of tapes with metallization prepared with the modified deposition system for compatibility high thermal stabilization and FCL requirements (KIT, IEE, SGI also WP3 and WP4).

 

T2.3: Manufacture of Tapes (M1-M30)

Task leader: THEVA; participants: OXO

Parallel to the developments in tasks 2.2. and 2.3., tape will be provided to partners for the developments described in WP1, WP3 and WP4 in sufficient amount, piece length and with varying critical current in order to test the effectiveness of the tailored coatings developed within these work packages. It is expected that in total about 1000 m of tape will be needed.

Once the tape characteristics are defined and the requirements for large scale bonding are fixed about 800 m (50 kV and 100 V/m) the REBCO tape for the smart demonstrator module and qualification tests are planned to be manufactured.

D2.1 : Advanced tapes with increased homogeneity and performance for DC fault current limiting applications [25]
Comparison of the homogeneity measurement means, study of the correlation with other characterization (SEM,
TEM, XRD, chemical analysis), thorough analysis of the elaboration process to enhance the homogeneity and the
critical current, measurements and conclusions, further improvements. Robustness of the process. Identification of the
sensitive points.

D2.2 : Process and properties of advanced metallization layers on long length REBCO tapes [25]
Study of the different materials, mainly silver alloys, for the metallization layer, adaptation and optimization of the
industrial deposition process, minization of the layer thickness, measurement of the resistivity and the current transfer
length.

D2.3 : Tape produced for the smart demonstrator module [37]
Performances of the optimized tape produced for the module, feedbacks on the produced lengths and improvement
ways for the process, robustness of the tape for its implementation.

WP3: Functionalized material for devices and FCL smart module

WP1 and WP2 develop a smart REBCO tape and customize it for the use into a power device. In this project, we propose to demonstrate the suitability of such smart tapes for the application of high voltage superconductive fault current limiter where long length of tape have to be integrated in the proper way in a high voltage environment and into a cryogenic environment.

WP3 will support the project by designing and prototyping the different components of a high voltage superconductive fault current limiter including the advanced REBCO tape integration in this special environment.

The first objective of WP3 is to define the properties of the customized stabilizing coating on the smart tape and the process to assemble the smart shunt and the isolation coating onto the advanced tape along hundreds of meters. The final assembly of the shunt on the tape is further defined as the conductor. The next objective of WP3 is to define the conductor winding considering the high voltage design and the necessary electrical properties of the assembly. Based upon the electrical considerations and cryogenic considerations, WP3 will then specify and procure the cryostat in which the electrical modules will be assembled and the demonstrator will be further tested in WP4. At last WP3 will design, procure and adjust the DC current circuit breaker in accordance with the SCFCL properties and network conditions.

The association of the SCFCL and the DC breaker will be demonstrated in WP4.

The conclusion of WP3 will be a high voltage demonstrator of an association of SCFCL and HVDC circuit breaker integrating the advanced tape at a pre-industrial stage.

SuperGrid, CNRS, THEVA, RSE SPA, EPM, EPFL

T3.1 Fault current limiter general design and optimization (M1-M12)

Task leader: EPM; participants: SGI, CNRS, EPMEPFL

Based on the results of WP1 and WP2, determine the general dimensions of the Fault current limiter with respect to:

  • Specification of the combined solution SCFCL + DC breaker (SGI)
  • Electrical and thermal properties of the conductor, including effect of inhomogeneities of Ic in the case of fast quenching tapes (never explored in details in the past for high temperature superconductors) (EPM, EPFL)
  • Nitrogen and solid insulation dielectric properties (CNRS, SGI)
  • Measurement of insulation thermal properties on short samples and assessment of optimal thermal insulation (EPFL)
  • Cryostat losses (SGI, RSE)
  • Hypothesis of winding structure (SGI, CNRS)
  • Supporting structure and assembly issues (SGI)

 

T3.2: Development of a large-scale bonding technique for assembling shunt and tape (M6-M30)

Task leader: SGI; participants: SGI, EPFLTHEVA

Long length tape will be supplied as an output of WP2. However, a stabilizing coating and a thick shunt as defined in WP1 has to be attached to it. WP1 will only assemble and characterize at small scale the tape and its shunt, the next phase in WP3 is to produce at industrial scale hundreds of meter of the complex conductor.

The technical challenges to overcome are:

  • To define the protocol of quality check at industrial level (SGI)
  • To define the proper assembly way adapted for production of large lengths. (SGI)
  • To define the proper surface treatment necessary for assembly providing good adhesion and heat transfer between the tape and the shunt (SGI)
  • To investigate the tapes joined with shunt in cross-section regarding the adhesion of the shunt, the occurrence of bubbles or in-homogeneities at the interface tape/shunt, etc. (STU)
  • To investigate the insertion of a optical fiber in the conductor (EPFL, SGI)
  • To provide a repeatable technical process (SGI)
  • To ensure a constant quality of assembly along the full length (SGI)
  • To provide a solution respectful of the environment (SGI)
  • Associated with document Ref. Ares(2016)6441697 - 16/11/2016
  • Page 18 of 36
  • To provide a technical solution easily scalable for industrial applications.(SGI)

The benchmark of the possible solutions will be first evaluated in term of feasibility, risk, time for development and cost effectiveness. Based on the results of the analysis a machine will have to be specified, procured and adjusted to find out the right process parameters.

 

T3.3: Tape Winding – Design and realization (M6-M30)

Task leader: CNRS; participants: SGI, RSECNRS

The technical data of the new conductor and the electrical specifications of the demonstrator will define the total length to be wound on a support.

Different industrial solutions for winding will be investigated and classified in respect to several technical and economical criteria:

  • Compactness: hundreds of meters wound in such a way to minimize the cryostat size (SGI, CNRS)
  • Magnetic field: the winding should not produce magnetic field that would impact the tape critical current, the magnetic field distribution will be evaluated (RSE)
  • Inductance: the tape winding should result in an inductance as low as possible, ac losses will be evaluated (RSE)
  • High voltage stress: the winding should be such that high voltage stress is taken care and leads to compactness of the cryostat, the electric field simulations and mitigation actions will be performed (SGI)
  • Modular design (SGI)
  • Keep low the number of electrical connections for practical assembly reasons and thermal losses reasons. (SGI)
  • Ensure the winding quality along the full length (SGI)

This first part of the work package will be completed with the specification, the procurement of a winding machine. A necessary adaptation of the process parameters will be necessary to produce high quality windings for SCFCL 50 kV DC.

 

T3.4: Cryostat procurement (M1-M24)

Task leader: SGI; participants: SGIRSE

A cryostat together with the high voltage bushings and the cooling machine have to be designed, procured and assembled:

  • Design of the device to obtain the functional temperature and pressure (SGI)
  • Design of the insulating supports of the winding (SGI)
  • Design of the HVDC bushings, current leads and internal connections. (SGI)
  • Evaluation of liquid nitrogen losses (RSE)
  • Evaluation of overpressures during quench and potential internal arc (RSE)
  • Evaluation of recovery time after a quench (RSE)
  • Control and Monitoring system (SGI, RSE)
  • Procurement (SGI)
  • Commissioning (RSE, SGI)

 

T3.5: HVDC breaker associated with the fault current limiter (M12-M30)

Task leader: SGI; participants: SGIEPFL
The interrupting characteristics of the high voltage circuit breaker will be adapted to the performance of the FCL:

  • Specification of the combined solution SCFCL+DC breaker (SGI)
  • Use of an optical fiber as quench detector to communicate between the SCFCL and the DC breaker (EPFL, SGI)
  • Design of the mechanical breaker (SGI)
  • Design of the auxiliary equipment for the mechanical breaker (SGI)
  • Procurement, assembly and adjustment of the prototype (SGI)

D3.1 : Specification and commissioning report of the cryostat [30]
Thorough study the specifications of the cryostat suitable to our requirements focusing on industrial and robust
design, commissioning of the cryostat with critical analysis.

D3.2 : Report on reel to reel long tape bonding [37]
Study of the industrialization of the bonding of the shunt to the REBCO tape, optimization of the process in regards
to its cost, uniformity, quality, implementation easiness and performances (heat transfers inter alia), study of the
insertion of the optical fiber for quench detection

D3.3 : Report on coil performance [37]
Complete studies of the coil in terms of compactness, cooling performances, realization easiness and robustness,
dielectric strength, critical analysis, design flaws as well as design improvements, use of simulation and partner’s
know-how.

D3.4 : HVDC breaker specification and prototype mechanical characteristics [37]
Study, design and qualifications of an HVDC breaker suitable for the SCFCL, research of the optimization of the
HVDC breaker plus SCFCL system. Thorough study of the breaker control to guarantee SCFCL protection and avoid
false triggering.

WP4: Validation and demonstration tests

The SFCL technology has been objective of study in many research projects worldwide and several prototypes have been developed and field-tested in real grid conditions. In order to reach the market breakthrough and become more attractive for utilities, SFCL are required to increase some technical features that can make this technology overcome classical solutions. FASTGRID is intended to develop advanced and emerging REBCO conductors for DC fault current limiting applications and WP4 will support the project first of all by performing the required characterizations to validate the REBCO conductors, afterwards by planning and executing the final acceptance tests on the small-scale prototype.

The first objective of the WP4 is aimed to study, develop and apply methodologies for characterizing the emerging and advanced REBCO conductors developed by WP1 and WP2. The first delivery of FASTGRID consists in hundreds of meters of advanced REBCO tape and WP4 may contribute by performing the measurement of electric field in overcurrent conditions, Ic value, AC losses and normal state resistance on small-scale windings and large-scale coils (or mock-ups). Overcurrent tests will be performed as well, in order to ascertain the behavior of REBCO windings and coils in overload conditions and to evaluate the thermal stability and the maximum temperature increase allowed by the tape integrity. All the tests may be performed in liquid nitrogen bath between 65 K and 77 K. On the basis of the characterizations, WP4 will be able to provide indications and data for the design of small-scale modules and the final prototype that can constitute a supporting input for WP3.

The conclusion of WP4 will consist in the performance of the validation tests on the final smart module prototype. In agreement with the consortium and in particular with SGI (WP3), a smart module prototype may be tested against dielectric stress and overcurrent stress. Further to the results of characterizations and on the basis of the design agreed with the consortium, RSE will study the proper testing methodology to validate the final prototype. RSE will address the finalization of a procedure for dielectric testing and power testing of the FASTGRID outcome. For what concern dielectric testing, RSE may rely on its own testing facility, whereas for final power tests external laboratories will have to be considered.

RSE SPA, CNRS, SuperGrid, OXOLUTIA, THEVA, KITEPFL

T4.1: Characterization on small-scale windings and coils made of advanced REBCO tapes (M6-M24)

Task leader: CNRS; participants: RSE, KITEPFL

Task 4.1 is concerned with the main characterizations (electrical and thermal) to be performed on the small-scale windings (typically up to 5-6 m and voltages lower than 200 V) manufactured using the advanced REBCO tapes developed in WP1 and WP2. As a first objective of this activity, the T4.1 partners will agree upon the most relevant configurations of small-scale windings (straight, bifilar, helical, pancake, …) and the procedures of their characterization. Several samples of each configuration will be studied in order to investigate the impact of a variation in tape properties on the fault limiting behavior.

The T4.1 partners will perform electrical characterization of these small scale windings by carrying out the following experiments:

  • evaluation of critical current in the temperature range 65 K – 80 K;
  • DC and AC overcurrent tests (in the temperature range 65 K – 80 K) in order to ascertain the behavior in overload conditions and to evaluate the thermal stability, the maximum temperature increase allowed by the tape integrity and maximum electric field in fault conditions and to identify a suitable correspondence between DC and AC from the point of view of thermal stress on the tape;
  • determination of the tape recovery time;
  • measurement of resistance as a function of temperature in a wide range of temperatures;
  • AC losses measurement to evaluate the heat release in the small-scale winding carrying a variable current, DC current with AC ripple, and DC transient situations in the temperature range 65 K – 80 K.

 EPFL will make pulsed quench measurements on small scale windings between 65 K and 77 K, recovery time will be measured too. On the basis of the characterizations results, the conclusions will be deduced to provide feedback for WP1 and WP2 regarding the optimization of REBCO tapes for limiting applications. Numerical models will be used for a quantitative interpretation of experimental findings. Dielectric tests will also be performed at RSE, considering configurations that are similar to the one foreseen inside the final smart module: the results for this activity will be used to estimate the dielectric withstanding capability. Consequently some indications will be deduced to facilitate the smart module design in WP3.

Besides the small-scale windings made from one single tape the models containing two tapes in parallel will be studied as well. Particular objective of this activity is to find the procedures limiting the inequality of currents in parallel tapes carrying DC below the critical current. The knowledge obtained will help to assess the feasibility of current limiting devices for DC currents in the range of several kA. Two concepts will be followed:

  • reduction of the variation in contact resistances by optimization of the bonding process
  • modification of contact resistances after bonding (mechanical deformation, application of local magnetic field, heating, etc…)

 

T4.2: Characterization on large-scale coils and mock-ups for demonstrators (M12-M30)

Task leader: KIT; participants: OXO, THEVA, RSEEPFL

Task 4.2 is focused on large-scale (i.e. longer than 10 m) coils and mock-ups and in particular on their electro-thermal characterization.

Further to results coming from WP1 and WP2, RSE foresees to contribute to the validation of long length REBCO conductors for SFCL demonstrators. Considering that the object to be tested will be the final large-scale coils to be used for SFCL module, RSE plans to perform first of all the evaluation of critical current following a conservative strategy to avoid damages to the module. Even if the FASTGRID project is concerned with DC, it makes sense to carry out the measurement of AC losses to evaluate the losses of modules in DC with ripple and current-transient’s situation and also to compare different types of configuration in the temperature range 65 K – 80 K. Moreover, their level represents an indication of the tape integrity, especially in case a conservative DC test is performed. Finally, the estimation of the recovery time will be useful for the project: following the indications of THEVA and OXO , RSE will be able to increase the temperature of coils up to the agreed value, by measuring the time required to restore the initial temperature. All the tests results of T4.2 will represent important inputs for the SFCL module design developed in WP3.

 

T4.3: Study and identification of the most representative procedures for dielectric and power testing in DC of the final demonstrator smart-module (M16-M36)

Task leader: SGI; participants: OXO, THEVARSE

Task 4.3 is focused on the preparation of the validation/acceptance tests on the final demonstrator smart-module.

Inparticular the identification of the most representative procedures for DC dielectric and power testing will be addressed.

The main goal of Task 4.3 (the determination of the most reasonable procedure for DC dielectric and power testing) will try to cover the lack of particular international standards for the FASTGRID application. The study may be initially based on the international standards concerned with applications as close as possible to the one foreseen by FASTGRID: the first example could be the DC testing of cables. As second step, the standard procedures will have to be adapted to the unique features of FASTGRID application and the fault scenarios to be simulated during power testing will have to be identified on the basis of the experience in real grids. The main outcome of Task 4.3 will be a procedure, collectively agreed by the whole consortium, paving the way for Task 4.4 activity. In fact, on the basis of this procedure, it will be possible to carry-out the final validation/acceptance tests on the smart module demonstrator including both dielectric and high power testing.

 

T4.4: Validation and acceptance tests on smart-module of the final demonstrator apparatus (M30-M42)

Task leader: RSE; participants: CNRS, SGIKIT

Further to the testing procedure finalized in Task 4.3 and agreed by the consortium, the main goal of Task 4.4 consists in the final validation and acceptance tests to be carried-out on the demonstrator apparatus. Tests will include the evaluation of dielectric withstanding capability, the fault current limitation capability and the nominal conditions. For what concerns dielectric tests, RSE is able to apply DC voltage up to 200 kV in its own laboratories; higher DC voltages will be applied by using the High Voltage Testing Hall Facility (2,2 MV Pulse, 700 kV DC, 1 MVrms AC). For what concerns dielectric tests, RSE is able to apply DC voltage up to 200 kV in its own laboratories; higher DC voltages may be applied in the High Voltage Testing Hall. For what concerns high current tests, CESI DC testing facility in Milano or Berlin has to be considered up to 3 kV, whereas for higher voltages other European high-power laboratories are foreseen and will be selected in the last year of the project. The final objective of this task will be addressed collectively by critically analyzing the tests results to individuate design flaws and malfunctioning of key components.

D4.1 : Results and analysis of electrical and thermal characterizations on small-scale windings based on advanced
REBCO tapes for DC fault current limiting applications - Preliminary version [13]
Electrical characterization of the small-scale windings and their qualification in terms of compactness, cooling
performances, dielectric strength for all the most relevant configurations; design and implementation improvement on
the basis of critical analysis of the realization easiness and robustness; study of the inequality of currents in paralleled
tapes in DC conditions below the critical current.

D4.2 : Electro-thermal characterization of large-scale coils and mock-ups based on advanced REBCO tapes: analysis
of results and performance - Preliminary version [18]
Intensive tests of the large-scale coils and mock-ups, characterization in terms of critical current, homogeneity,
electro-thermal behaviour during overcurrent transients, AC losses (useful to evaluate the losses of modules in DC
with ripple and in current-transient situations), recovery time, performance limits (up to destruction) to ascertain the
capability margins and improve the design.

D4.3 : Results and analysis of electrical and thermal characterizations on small-scale windings based on advanced
REBCO tapes for DC fault current limiting applications [25]
Electrical characterization of the small-scale windings and their qualification in terms of compactness, cooling
performances, dielectric strength for all the most relevant configurations; design and implementation improvement on
the basis of critical analysis of the realization easiness and robustness; study of the inequality of currents in paralleled
tapes in DC conditions below the critical current.

D4.4 : Electro-thermal characterization of large-scale coils and mock-ups based on advanced REBCO tapes: analysis
of results and performance [30]
Intensive tests of the large-scale coils and mock-ups, characterization in terms of critical current, homogeneity,
electro-thermal behaviour during overcurrent transients, AC losses (useful to evaluate the losses of modules in DC
with ripple and in current-transient situations), recovery time, performance limits (up to destruction) to ascertain the
capability margins and improve the design

D4.5 : Test circuit and procedures for the dielectric and short-circuit testing in DC of the final demonstrator smartmodule
[37]
Search, identification and study of the most representative dielectric and high current test procedures and ratings for
the final demonstrator smart-module (actually, no standard exists so far); identification of proper testing circuit and
procedures.

D4.6 : Main results of the dielectric and high current tests performed on the HVDC SFCL smart module developed by
FASTGRID project [42]
Selection of the most proper test-facilities to validate the final demonstrator with respect to dielectric withstanding
capability, nominal conditions, and fault current limitation; implementation at the selected test facilities of the
procedures and ratings described in D4.5; critical analysis of the experimental tests results.

WP5: Dissemination and socio-economic aspects

The major objectives of this work package Dissemination and Socio-economic Aspects are to co-ordinate and maximize the project dissemination and to investigate the socio-economic aspects of the most promising applications like the HVDC limiter including life cycle assessment of the developed tapes and their different manufacturing routes.

To achieve these objectives the WP5is organized in four tasks with specific objectives that are linked with each other and that have strong links to other work packages. A first and major objective is to proof environment friendly manufacturing of the newly developed manufacturing routes. This will be done via a life cycle assessment in task 5.1. A second major objective is to demonstrate the superior technical and economic feasibility of HVDC limiters. This is of utmost importance since at present such devices do not exist. Task 5.2 will therefore have the detailed objective to perform a techno-economic analysis for attractive applications of HVDC limiters. Furthermore, it is a major objective within FASTGRID to maximize the impact of project dissemination. This is done in task 5.3 for the scientific dissemination and the public outreach of the project.

Finally, it is expected that the partners will create many new ideas and knowledge and in order to accelerate time from invention to market task 5.4 “Dissemination to industry and knowledge transfer” will co-ordinate all IPR and technology transfer activities.

Task 5.1 Life cycle assessment (M12-M42)

Task leader: KIT; participants: THEVA, OXO, SGITAU

A life cycle assessment study for the tapes including the shunt and their new manufacturing routes with a “from

cradle to grave” approach will be performed with the aim to compare the environmental impact of the tapes developed in FASTGRID and other HTS tapes and conventional conductors. For this comparison the results from the FP7 EUROTAPES project will be evaluated. This can be done very efficient because the FASTGRID material manufacturers are also partners in the EUROTAPES consortiumThe focus in this task is on present state-of-the-art as well as on future improvement potential. The main parameters for the environmental impact are identified through a sensitivity analysis and KIT will lead this activity with strong support of the material manufacturers and ITE for the shunt manufacturing.

 

Task 5.2 Techno-economic analysis (M12-M42)

Task leader: SGI; participants: KITRSE

A major objective of this task is to perform a techno-economic analysis of the most attractive and promising applications for high-performance HTS tapes including HVDC current limiter and high current cables. This will be done by SGI with strong support of RSE and KIT. Since the HVDC fault current limiter is a new application with no conventional counterpart the economic evaluation will be based firstly on the potential benefits of such a limiter. Secondly, a cost estimation for a HVDC limiter will be performed and with both results a detailed economic analysis, showing benchmark parameters for future applications, is set up.

 

Task 5.3 Scientific knowledge dissemination and public outreach (M6-M42)

Task leader: KIT; participants: all

A detailed dissemination and communication action plan will be delivered, which will then be continuously updated during the course of the project. For example, all project partners will publish the project results in international journals and at conferences and workshops. A list of conferences and journals is given in table 4 and table 5 (section 2). It is foreseen to publish all scientific contributions in journals with open access only.

A project website will be established by KIT and all project data will be collected and provided to the project partners via a shared and protected website. In addition, public information and open project results will be available on this website, which will be serviced by KIT. This will guarantee open access to data and project results even after the project is finished.

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Additional communication activities will be selective and targeted to maximize their impact. Specific target groups where the project results will be brought in are besides many national groups the following international groups:

  • International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impacts of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector (www.superconductivityiea.rse-web.it)
  • CIGRE WG D1.64 “Electrical insulation systems at cryogenic temperatures” (www.cigre.org )
  • EERA Joint Programme Smart Grids and Energy Storage (www.eera-set.eu)
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Technical Committee No. 90: Superconductivity
  • European Distributed Energy Resources Laboratories (DERlab) e.V.(www.der-lab.net )

 

Task 5.4 Dissemination to industry and knowledge transfer (M12-M42)

Task leader: THEVA; participants: all

The dissemination strategy to industry and knowledge transfer plays an important role in achieving the impacts of the project. Special objectives will therefore to raise the awareness and to inform potential customers of the HTS material and the HVDC limiter about the technology and the achievements. It is planned that the dissemination to industry is target group oriented with Theva leading the HTS material dissemination and SGI leading HVDC limiter and further applications dissemination activities. The End-User board has an important role to play in this task because potential customers are included and regular reports are given on this task during the project meetings.

The industry project partners plan to demonstrate their latest improvements of the conductor performance at conference exhibitions at ASC and EUCAS and at the Hanover Industry Fair. To accelerate the application of the material developed within the FASTGRID project, the material manufactures THEVA and Oxolutia will provide short samples of their newest material for free to interested manufacturers and industry. The latest performance of the tapes will be regularly published at the company websites and the project website.

The knowledge transfer of the consortium partners addresses the issues on intellectual property rights (IPR) and knowledge transfer. These issues are defined in the consortium agreement with the objective to accelerate knowledge transfer and to harmonize individual IPR agreements.

D5.1 : Project website [4]
Structure of the FASTGRID website, web graphic design, clarity. Interface design, attractiveness and ease of web
navigation, the different sections

D5.2 : Detailed dissemination and communication action plan [6]
Set of measures foreseen to insure an effective communication and dissemination of FASTGRID. Translation in an
action plan.

D5.3 : Techno-economic analysis of HVDC limiter [37]
In relation with the end-user board the techno-economic analysis of the HVDC limiter, analysis of the potential
benefits (overdesign reduction …) and the competitors. Influence of future cost down. Consequence and perspectives
of the Sapphire route, a real breakthrough route with fully change for the tape data for HV SCFCL

D5.4 : Life cycle analysis for HTS tapes [42]
Complete Live cycle analysis of the REBCO conductor (tape + shunt) with a “from cradle to grave” approach with
comparison of the conductor environmental impact. Identification of the main parameters with sensitivity analysis.

WP6: Project management

The main objective of WP6 is to ensure an efficient and successful management of the project and the consortium. To effectively do this, the following goals will be taken into account:

  • To ensure effective communications with the European commission;
  • To ensure efficient and clear communication on all financial and administrative issues, across the consortium;
  • Organise all required meetings and teleconferences, in accordance with the Work plan, for the Governing Board;
  • Actively involve the External Advisory Board across main project activities and gather relevant feedback;
  • Organise the periodic reporting, i.e. progress, management and financial in due time;
  • Prepare and submit FASTGRID’s final reports
  • Overall (non-scientific) coordination

CNRS, SuperGrid, CSIC, OXO, THEVA, RSE, SPA, EPM, TAU, KIT, IEE, EPFL, STUBA

Task 6.1. Consortium management and coordination – CNRS, KIT – M1-M42

CNRS and KIT will share work on the consortium management and coordination. While CNRS will be responsible for compiling and producing periodic and final reports and supporting the Advisory Board e,g. with disseminating its recommendations within the consortium, KIT will prepare project templates and collect the deliverables and scientific publications.

CNRS will ensure that all reports are provided in due time to the EU and that the composition of the various project boards (Governing board, Advisory board, WP leader) will reflect a fair representation of all stakeholders.

 

Task 6.2 Organization of the Governing meeting and Advisory Board meetings – KIT, CNRS, – M1-M42

Consortium meetings will be necessary to lead the project and ensure a smooth development. CNRS will organize the kick-off meeting in Grenoble at the start of the project. KIT will be responsible for the co-ordination and preparation of all following meetings except the final review meeting that is organized by CNRS. Meeting organization includes for example preparing the agenda, distributing handouts and organizing complete meeting documentation. The individual hosts of the meeting will take care for local arrangements only.

 

Task 6.3. Communication with the EC – CNRS- M1-M42

The Coordinator will ensure a good and clear communication with the EU. The Coordinator will act as liaison with the EC Project Officer and represent the Consortium at all relevant EC meetings and conferences.

 

Task 6.4. Financial management and distribution of the EU funding – CNRS – M1-M42

During the entire project duration, the Coordinator and the Governing Board will make sure that all resources foreseen for the project realization are available to the project partners. The Coordinator will ensure effective communication between partners and will track all the costs related to the project. With partners’ input and cooperation, the coordinator will provide on due time the EU with financial reports and will be in charge of distributing the EU funding to the partners.

 

Task 6.5 Scientific Management – CNRS – M1-M42

The main goal of this task will be to: guarantee control, validation and verification of project results; ensure that plans are fulfilled; implement necessary corrective actions. Specific activities of scientific management will include: define, divide and develop scientific tasks; daily management of scientific consortium activities within the consortium and to EC; check on the progress of the scientific work; co-ordinate the research teams; co-ordinate the preparation of scientific reports and implementation plan; scientific organization of the Annual Project Meeting; advise and direct the partners on the developments necessary for the project; follow the scientific organization

 

Task 6.6 Risk evaluation and corrective actions – CNRS – M1-M42

CNRS will co-ordinate the preparation and regular update of a project risk plan. The management of risks and corrective actions to be taken will be handled for the entire duration of FASTGRID in order to identify, quantify, track and mitigate risks within the project. This activity will also enable the Consortium to monitor and control the overall level of risk throughout the project.

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Task 6.7. Gender equality (CNRS, all partners) M1-M48

The consortium will ensure the effective promotion of gender equality and implement an equal opportunity policy from the very beginning of the project. For all the recruitments of new staff involved in the project, applications from women will be deeply encouraged. For the same profiles, female applicants will be preferred. It is the main objective in this project to ensure a gender proportion according to international gender levels.

D6.1 : Documentation of the kick-off meeting [4]
Minutes of the kick-off meeting, first actions launched, web site specifications, storage system and data exchanges.

D6.2 : Project risk plan [13]
General rules and corrective actions to manage the risks all along FASTGRID project.